Eighth Grade U.S. History

Grade Standards, Supporting Skills, and Examples

Indicator 1: Analyze the U.S historical eras to determine connections and
cause/effect relationships in reference to chronology.

Bloom’s Taxonomy
Level

Standard, Supporting Skills, and Examples
(Analysis)
8.US.1.1. Students are able to relate events and outcomes of the American Revolution to sources of conflict, roles of key individuals and battles, and political documents.
• Identify and explain the sources of conflict which led to
the American Revolution.
Examples: Proclamation of 1763, Stamp Act,
Townshend Acts, Sugar Act, Coercive (Intolerable)
Acts, tax on tea
• Associate key individuals with their roles in the
American Revolution.
Examples: John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, King
George, Patrick Henry, Thomas Paine, Samuel Adams,
Benjamin Franklin.
• Explain the political significance of the Declaration of
Independence.
• Describe major military battles and the role of major
American and British military leaders in the American
Revolution.
Examples: Lexington and Concord, Saratoga,
Yorktown, Bunker Hill, George Washington, Benedict
Arnold, George Rogers Clark, William Howe, John
Burgoyne, Charles Cornwallis
(Comprehension)
8.US.1.2. Students are able to describe the unfolding of
westward expansion and reform movements in the United
States.

• Explain sequentially how and why the land was acquired
and settled.
Examples: Louisiana Purchase, Florida, Oregon, Texas
Examples: Texas Revolution, Mexican War, Cherokee
relocation, Seminole War
• Describe the reform movement of the mid-nineteenth
century in the U.S.
Examples: women, slavery
(Comprehension)
8.US.1.3. Students are able to describe the sources of conflict, key individuals, battles, and political documents of the Civil War period.
• Outline the major sources of conflict.
Example: political, geographical, and economic
differences
• Identify key individuals and explain their roles in the
Civil War.
Examples: Daniel Webster, John C. Calhoun, Abraham
Lincoln, John Brown, Jefferson Davis, Stephen
Douglas, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Robert E. Lee, Ulysses
S. Grant
• Describe major military battles and campaigns.
Examples: Bull Run, Gettysburg, Antietam, Vicksburg,
Shiloh
• Associate significant political documents and speeches
with events.
Examples: Gettysburg Address, Emancipation
Proclamation
(Comprehension)
8.US.1.4. Students are able to summarize the political and
social changes in the United States during Reconstruction
.
• Outline the political effects of Reconstruction in the
United States.
Examples: Freedmen’s Bureau, Jim Crow laws,
Carpetbaggers, military districts
• Outline the social changes of Reconstruction in the
United States.
Example: rise of the Ku Klux Klan
Indicator 2: Evaluate the influence/impact of various cultures, philosophies, and
religions on the development of the U.S.

Bloom’s Taxonomy
Level

Standard, Supporting Skills, and Examples
(Analysis)
8.US.2.1. Students are able to explain the impact of the
American Revolution on American philosophies.

• Compare the political and social differences between 13
separate colonies and one independent nation.
Example: Confederation vs. Federal System
• Contrast the various philosophies of American colonists
before and after the Revolution.
Examples: Loyalists vs. Patriots, Federalists vs. Anti-
Federalists
(Analysis)
8.US.2.2. Students are able to summarize the influence of westward expansion and reform movements on American
culture, philosophies, and religions.

• Describe the impact of Manifest Destiny.
Examples: Mexican-American War, Gadsden Purchase
• Describe ways in which immigration and migration led
to conflicts between Anglo-European and Native
American cultures.
Examples: Trail of Tears, railroads, introduction of
reservation system, land grants, missionaries
» Identify continuing impact of these early conflicts on
U.S. government relations with Native Americans.
Examples: Minnesota Uprising, Red Cloud’s War, Battle
of Little Big Horn, Wounded Knee
• Explain the Abolitionist Movement and its impact on
slavery.
Examples: underground railroad, role of women,
Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman
• Describe the impact of significant inventors and their
inventions on society.
Examples: Samuel Morse, Eli Whitney, railroads
(Analysis)
8.US.2.3. Students are able to summarize the impacts of the
Civil War on American culture and philosophies.

• Describe the changing roles of women.
Examples: Clara Barton, Dorothea Dix
• Explain how the war affected soldiers, civilians, the
physical environment, and future warfare.
Examples: total war, sanitation and disease, military
technology, division of families
(Analysis)
8.US.2.4. Students are able to describe the impact of various
cultures and philosophies on the U.S. during Reconstruction.

• Describe how the abolition of slavery affected the life of
African-Americans in United States’ society.
Examples: political representation, economic
opportunities, education, migration
» Describe the changing federal policy toward Native
Americans.
Examples: assimilation of Native Americans, Dawes Act

Eighth Grade U.S. History

Performance Descriptors

Advanced
Eighth grade students performing at the advanced level will:
• explain the connection between events of the Civil War and
Reconstruction;
• analyze the role of leadership in times of conflict;
• defend the position of each side in the American Revolution
and Civil War;
• compare the positive and negative effects of westward
expansion.
Proficient
Eighth grade students performing at the proficient level will:
• explain the events, outcomes, and impact of the American
Revolution on the emergence of the United States;
• describe the influence of westward expansion and reform
movements on American culture and philosophies;
• explain the events, outcomes, and impact of the Civil War on
American society;
• summarize political and social changes and their relationship
to the culture and philosophies of the United States during
Reconstruction.
Basic
Eighth grade students performing at the basic level will:
• list the events and outcomes of the American Revolution;
• describe the westward expansion and reform movements;
• list the events and outcomes of the Civil War;
• identify the changes in the United States during
Reconstruction.

Eighth Grade World History

Grade Standards, Supporting Skills, and Examples
The committee, with input from educators throughout the state, revised the former eighth
grade social studies standards to facilitate effective instruction and student mastery with
emphasis on an in-depth study of U.S. History.

Eighth Grade Geography

Grade Standards, Supporting Skills, and Examples
The committee, with input from educators throughout the state, revised the former eighth
grade social studies standards to facilitate effective instruction and student mastery with
emphasis on an in-depth study of U.S. History.

Eighth Grade Civics (Government)

Grade Standards, Supporting Skills, and Examples

Note: In most districts these standards will be taught and learned in grade-level
courses as they relate to the topics of World History in Grade 6, Geography in
Grade 7, and U.S. History in Grade 8.


Indicator 1: Analyze forms and purposes of government in relationship to the needs
of citizens and societies including the impact of historical events, ideals, and
documents.

Bloom’s Taxonomy
Level

Standard, Supporting Skills, and Examples
(Comprehension)
8.C.1.1. Students are able to describe the basic structure of government adopted through compromises by the
Constitutional Convention.

Examples: three branches, separation of powers, checks
and balances
Examples: Great Compromise, Three-Fifths Compromise
(Application)
8.C.1.2. Students are able to describe the relationship of
government to citizens and groups during the Westward
Expansion.

Examples: Northwest Ordinance, Land Ordinance of 1785
» Identify basic structures of tribal government prior to the
Civil War.
Examples: Iroquois Confederacy, Cherokee, Tiospaye
government, Seven Council Fires (Lakota, Nakota, Dakota,)
(Application)
8.C.1.3. Students are able to describe the successes and
problems of the government under the Articles of
Confederation.

Examples: Shay’s Rebellion, lack of taxation
(Comprehension)
8.C.1.4. Students are able to describe the impact of the Civil War on the United States government.
Examples: Emancipation Proclamation, Confederate States
of America
Indicator 2: Analyze the constitutional rights and responsibilities of United States
citizens.

Bloom’s Taxonomy
Level

Standard, Supporting Skills, and Examples
(Comprehension)
8.C.2.1. Students are able to describe the fundamental
liberties and rights stated in the first 15 amendments of the Constitution.

Examples: Bill of Rights, freedom of speech, freedom of
religion, right to bear arms, Civil War amendments

Eighth Grade Civics (Government)

Performance Descriptors
Advanced
Eighth grade students performing at the advanced level will:
• compare the Articles of Confederation with the Constitution;
• describe the influence of the Constitution on contemporary
legislation;
• describe how westward expansion contributed to the Civil
War.
Proficient
Eighth grade students performing at the proficient level will:
• describe the successes and problems of the government under
the Articles of Confederation;
• describe the processes, differing points of view, and outcomes
of the Constitutional Convention;
• describe the relationship of government to citizens and groups
during the Westward Expansion and the Civil War;
• describe the fundamental liberties and rights stated in the first
15 amendments of the Constitution.
Basic
Eighth grade students performing at the basic level will:
• identify powers of the government under the Articles of
Confederation;
• identify the fundamental liberties and rights stated in the Bill
of Rights;
• describe the events of the Constitutional Convention.

Eighth Grade Economics

Grade Standards, Supporting Skills, and Examples

Note: In most districts these standards will be taught and learned in grade-level
courses as they relate to the topics of World History in Grade 6, Geography in
Grade 7, and U.S. History in Grade 8.

Note: Some South Dakota middle schools offer personal finance as a required or
elective course. If not addressed in another course of study, middle schools may
provide an understanding of concepts related to personal finance in the context of
the economics goal.

Indicator 1: Analyze the role and relationships of economic systems on the
development, utilization, and availability of resources in societies.

Bloom’s Taxonomy
Level

Standard, Supporting Skills, and Examples
(Comprehension)
8.E.1.1. Students are able to identify economic support for America during conflicts.
Examples: France, Spain, Native American
Examples: money, goods and supplies, services
Examples: Revolutionary War, War of 1812, Civil War
(Analysis)
8.E.1.2. Students are able to describe how westward
expansion was motivated by economic gain.

Examples: gold rush, fur trade, agriculture
Examples: supply and demand, buying on credit, wants vs.
needs
(Analysis)
8.E.1.3. Students are able to describe the impact of
technology and industrialization on mid-1800s America.

Examples: cotton gin, McCormick reaper, steamboat, steam
locomotive
Example: big business
(Comprehension)
8.E.1.4. Students are able to outline the economic effects of Reconstruction in the United States.
Examples: share cropping, contract system

Eighth Grade Economics

Performance Descriptors
Advanced
Eighth grade students performing at the advanced level will:
• explain why foreign countries provided economic support to
America during conflicts;
• describe how emerging technologies impacted the American
economy.
Proficient
Eighth grade students performing at the proficient level will:
• identify economic support for America during conflicts;
• describe how westward expansion was motivated by economic
gain;
• describe the impact of technology and industrialization to the
mid-1800s;
• outline the economic effects of Reconstruction in the United
States.
Basic
Eighth grade students performing at the basic level will:
• identify one source of economic support for an American
conflict;
• list one reason economic gain motivated westward expansion;
• list one economic effect of the Reconstruction.

U.S. HISTORY STANDARDS

6-8


The committee, with input from educators throughout the state, revised the former sixth
through eighth grade social studies standards to facilitate effective instruction and student
mastery with emphasis on an in-depth study of U.S. History in eighth grade.

Indicator 1: Analyze the U.S historical eras to determine connections and
cause/effect relationships in reference to chronology.

Eighth Grade
8.US.1.1. (Analysis) Relate events and outcomes of the American Revolution to
sources of conflict, roles of key individuals and battles, and political documents.
8.US.1.2. (Comprehension) Describe the unfolding of westward expansion and
reform movements in the United States.
8.US.1.3. (Comprehension) Describe the sources of conflict, key individuals, battles, and political documents of the Civil War period.
8.US.1.4. (Comprehension) Summarize the political and social changes in the United
States during Reconstruction.
Indicator 2: Evaluate the influence/impact of various cultures, philosophies, and religions on the development of the U.S.
Eighth Grade
8.US.2.1. (Analysis) Explain the impact of the American Revolution on American philosophies.
8.US.2.2. (Analysis) Summarize the influence of westward expansion and reform movements on American culture, philosophies, and religions.
8.US.2.3. (Analysis) Summarize the impacts of the Civil War on American culture and philosophies.
8.US.2.4. (Analysis) Describe the impact of various cultures and philosophies on the U.S. during Reconstruction.

CIVICS (GOVERNMENT) STANDARDS

6-8

Note: In most districts these standards will be taught and learned in grade-level
courses as they relate to the topics of World History in Grade 6, Geography in
Grade 7, and U.S. History in Grade 8.

Indicator 1: Analyze forms and purposes of government in relationship to the needs
of citizens and societies including the impact of historical events, ideals, and
documents.

Eighth Grade
8.C.1.1. (Comprehension) Describe the basic structure of government adopted through compromises by the Constitutional Convention.
8.C.1.2. (Application) Describe the relationship of government to citizens and groups during the Westward Expansion.
8.C.1.3. (Application) Describe the successes and problems of the government under the Articles of Confederation.
8.C.1.4. (Comprehension) Describe the impact of the Civil War on the United States
government.
Indicator 2: Analyze the constitutional rights and responsibilities of United States citizens.
Eighth Grade
8.C.2.1. (Comprehension) Describe the fundamental liberties and rights stated in
the first 15 amendments of the Constitution.

ECONOMICS STANDARDS

6-8

Note: In most districts these standards will be taught and learned in grade-level
courses as they relate to the topics of World History in Grade 6, Geography in
Grade 7, and U.S. History in Grade 8.

Note: Some South Dakota middle schools offer personal finance as a required or
elective course. If not addressed in another course of study, middle schools may
provide an understanding of concepts related to personal finance in the context of
the economics goal.

Indicator 1: Analyze the role and relationships of economic systems on the
development, utilization, and availability of resources in societies.

Eighth Grade
8.E.1.1. (Comprehension) Identify economic support for America during
conflicts.
8.E.1.2. (Analysis) Describe how westward expansion was motivated
by economic gain.
8.E.1.3. (Analysis) Describe the impact of technology and industrialization on mid-
1800s America.
8.E.1.4. (Comprehension) Outline the economic effects of Reconstruction in
the United States.